The knee is a hinge joint which provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg.Some or all of the components of the knee joint replaced with a synthetic implant is called knee replacement surgery. The healthy human's knee joint is lined with articular cartilage. Articular has a layer of tissue that provides low-friction and shock-absorbing properties. This protective layer of this cartilage will damage due to Arthritis and injury, causing extreme pain for a patient performing even simple activities. The following are the various types of knee replacement
Total knee replacement
Unicompartmental knee replacement
Autologous chondrocyte implantation
A total knee replacement surgery replaces all three compartments of the diseased knee joint. During a total knee replacement, the end of the femur bone is removed and replaced with a metal shell.Typical total knee replacement prosthesis consists of three components: a femoral component, a tibial component, and a replacement for the posterior patellar surface.
The femoral component
It is generally made of non-corrosive metal (most frequently a cobalt-chrome alloy), although some are made of ceramic.
The tibial component
It is a metal tray topped by a spacer of a special plastic known as ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). UHMWPE exhibits relatively low friction in a metal-plastic joint and resists wear better than many older alternative materials.
The third component is a replacement for the posterior surface of the patella for articulation with the other components.